War Comes — The end of this series.

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0292 OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, S. C. Chapter I.

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
Headquarters, April 9, 1861.
To the PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES:
MY DEAR SIR: I send by the bearer important dispatches to the Secretary of War, and beg to call your immediate attention to them. The bearer is Colonel Hayne, an aide of mine, and will return immediately to me. If you have anything particular to General Beauregard or myself, you can trust it to him, and he will bring it back immediately. Since I inclosed the dispatch to the Secretary of War Major Anderson has written a polite note to General Beauregard, requesting that the letters taken from the mail might be returned, as he had been notified that his mails would be stopped entirely. The general returned for answer that the private letters had been sent to their destination, but the official letters were sent to the Confederate Government, because rumors, well established, indicated that Mr. Fox had violated his faith to me in visiting the fort, under the guarantee of Captain Hartstene, who went with him. The pledge was that he visited Major Anderson by authority, for pacific purposes entirely. You see that the present scheme for supplying the fort is Mr. Fox’s. It is thought that the attempt will be made to-night, and we have doubled our steamboats on the harbor and bar.

Since I wrote to the War Department we have increased the forces on Morris Island to two thousand one hundred men, and ten companies of fine men arrive to-night, in the next train, of eight hundred men, and two more regiments arrive to-morrow. We hope to have about six thousand men there on the harbor batteries and posts. I trust we are ready, and if they come we will give them a cordial reception, such as will ring through this country, I think. I hope we are not mistaken; but, at any rate, we will try and do our duty.
With great esteem, yours, very truly,

F. W. PICKENS.
************************************************

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
Headquarters, April 9, 1861.
Honorable Mr. WALKER, Secretary of War:
SIR: At the request of General Beauregard I inclose the within. I took possession of the mails this morning from Sumter, and retained the packages marked “official.” These are all sent you. The private letters are all sent, as directed, to their owners. I did this because I consider a state of war is now inaugurated by the authorities at Washington, and all information of a public nature was necessary to us. The mails and all intercourse of any kind with Sumter are now forbidden, and I immediately refused Captain Talbot any interview with Major Anderson, and also his request to be restored to his command in the fort.

I called in General Beauregard, and made Captain Talbot and Mr. Chew repeat in his presence what they had said and what the former desired as to Sumter, and General Beauregard entirely and immediately concurred.
You will see by these letters of Major Anderson how it is intended to supply the fort; but by God’s providence we will, I trust, be prepared for them; and if they approach with war vessels also, I think you will hear of as bloody a fight as ever occurred. We now have three thousand seven hundred men at the different posts and batteries, and will have by to-morrow three thousand more, which I have called down. From my calculation, I think they will have about two thousand six

Page 294

hundred, and will attempt to land in launch-boats with 24 and 12 pounders, and it will probably be on the lower end of Morris Island, next the light-house. If so, we will have a fine rifle regiment to give them a cordial welcome from behind sand hills (that are natural fortifications), and two Dahlgren guns will be right on them, besides four 24-pounders in battery. I have four hundred fine Enfield rifles that have been practiced at nine hundred yards, and on that island, altogether, we have now one thousand nine hundred and fifty men, and are increasing it to-day.

There has just arrived on the bar a fine rifled cannon from Liverpool, of the latest maker (Blakely gun), an improvement upon Armstrong, of steel rolls or coils, with an elevation of seven and one-half degrees to a mile. It throws a shell or twelve-pound shot with the accuracy of a dueling-pistol, and only one and one-half pounds of powder. Such, they write me, is this gun, and I hope to have it in position to-night. We expect the attack about 6 o’clock in the morning, on account of the tide.
Very respectfully,

F. W. PICKENS.

[Inclosure Numbers 1.]
FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
General JOSEPH G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:
GENERAL: The increased activity and vigilance of the investing force, as reported yesterday, still continues. Three large traverses are nearly completed on the front, from battery Numbers 3 to 5, on Morris Island, and traverses are also being erected in the interior of battery Numbers 5. Additions of sand bags are being made to the covering of the magazine, between Nos. 2 and 3, and to the left flank of Numbers 1, where I think they are constructing a service magazine.
I am busily at work constructing splinter-proof shelters on the terreplein. I obtain timber by taking the gun carriages to pieces, and form the covering of the 2-inch iron pieces for embrasures, as seen below. The plates are spiked on, so as to be securely retained in their places, even if struck by a shell, which I am confident it will turn.
Our supplies are entirely cut off from the city, and those on hand are very limited.
The besieging forces worked all day yesterday, whenever the intervals between the showers of rain would allow.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

P. S. – I received yesterday a letter from the Secretary of War to Major Anderson, which, by mistake, had been enveloped to me. I handed it to Major Anderson without reading.
Respectfully, & c.,

J. G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

[Inclosure Numbers 2.]
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General:
DEAR COLONEL: In another envelope I shall send a Numbers 96, which you will be pleased to destroy.
That God will preserve our beloved country, is the heart-felt prayer of your friend,
R. A.

Page 294

Numbers 96.] FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.:
COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the South Carolinians have since about noon yesterday been very actively engaged in strengthening their works on Morris Island. I pray that God will avert the storm which seems impending over us, and restore amicable and permanently pacific relations between the States who still stick to the old Union and those who have formed another Government in the South.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

P. S. – I omitted acknowledging the receipt of the letter from the honorable Secretary of the 4th instant.

[Inclosure Numbers 3.]
Numbers 96.] FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:
COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the resumption of work yesterday (Sunday) at various points on Morris Island, and the vigorous prosecution of it this morning, apparently strengthening nearly all the batteries which are under the fire of our guns, shows that they either have received some news from Washington which has put them on the qui vive or that they have received orders from Montgomery to commence operations here. I am preparing by the side of my barbette guns protection for our men from the shells, which will be almost continuously bursting over or in our work.
I had the honor to receive by yesterday’s mail the letter of the honorable Secretary of War, dated April 4, and confess that what he there states surprises me very greatly, following as it does and contradicting so positively the assurance Mr. Crawford telegraphed he was authorized to make. I trust that this matter w ill be at once put in a correct light, as a movement made now, when the South has been erroneously informed that none such will be attempted, would produce most disastrous results throughout our country.

It is, of course, now too late for me to give any advice in reference to the proposed scheme of Captain Fox. I fear that its result cannot fail to be disastrous to all concerned. Even with his boat at our walls the loss of life (as I think I mentioned to Mr. Fox) in unloading her will more than pay for the good to be accomplished by the expedition, which keeps us, if I can maintain possession of this work, out of position, surrounded by strong works, which must be carried to make this fort of the least value to the United States Government.

We have not oil enough to keep a light in the lantern for one night. The boats will have, therefore, to rely at night entirely upon other marks. I ought to have been informed that this expedition was to come. Colonel Lamon’s remark convinced me that the idea, merely hinted at to me by Captain Fox, would not be carried out. We shall strive to do our duty, though I frankly say that my heart is not in the was which I see is to be thus commenced. That God will still avert it, and cause us to resort to pacific measures to maintain our rights, is my ardent prayer.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Page 297

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 9, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
The messenger speaks doubtless my authority. He gives the promised notice to Governor Pickens. Diplomacy has failed. The sword must now preserve our independence. Our gallant countrymen will do their duty.

MARTIN J. CRAWFORD.

MONTGOMERY, April 10, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
If you have no doubt of the authorized character of the agent who communicated to you the intention of the Washington Government to supply Fort Sumter by force you will at once demand its evacuation, and if this is refused proceed, in such manner as you may determine, to reduce it. Answer.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 10, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
The demand will be made to-morrow at 12 o’clock.
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General.

MONTGOMERY, April 10, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
Unless there are special reasons connected with your own condition, it is considered proper that you should make the demand at an earlier hour.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
The reasons are special for 12 o’clock.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Page 298

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES,
Charleston, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit copies of a set of complimentary resolutions, and of a resolution placing all the forces that may be called into service in this State under my orders, passed by the Convention of the State of South Carolina.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S. – I am doing all in my power to prevent re-enforcements by barges to Sumter to-night or to-morrow night.
G. T. B.

[Inclosures.]
Resolved, That this Convention approves of the action of the governor, in placing the forces for the military defense of Charleston under the command of General Beauregard, and that he be authorized to call into the field immediately such number of the volunteer regiments, raised under the act of assembly, as General Beauregard may require for the operations under his control; the whole force to be placed under the command of General Beauregard, or such other general officer as may be ordered to the same command by the authorities of the Confederate States of America.
[Adopted Monday, April 8, 1861.]

Resolved, That this Convention, on behalf of the people of this State, repose entire confidence in the eminent professional skill, courage, and sound judgment of Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, and in the intelligent and efficient co-operation of the various members of his staff, and other assistants, military and naval, and respectfully tender to them, and to the various forces in the service, and individuals designated, the thanks of the State for their successful efforts thus far, to protect the honor and interests of the State.

Resolved, That it Fort Sumter shall fall into the hands of our present Government, and the harbor of Charleston should be relieved from all hostile occupation or obstruction, although without any actual conflict of arms, such result will be not the less achieved by our forces aforesaid, and their wise and effective operations.

Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be communicated to General Beauregard, with a request that he extend them to the various regiments, battalions, and separate companies, and to his staff and assistants, in such form and manner as he shall judge expedient.
[Adopted Monday, April 8, 1861.]
MORRIS ISLAND, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD,

Page 301
HDQRS. PROV. ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA,
Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:
SIR: I transmit herewith, for the information of the Department, a copy of my note of this morning to Major Anderson, commanding at Fort Sumter, demanding the surrender of that fort to the Confederate Government, together with a copy of his reply thereto.* As soon as
—————
* See inclosures to Anderson’s report, p. 13.

Page 302

his answer was received a telegraphic dispatch (a copy of which is inclosed) was sent to you, communicating its purport, and asking for your instructions. I regret to add here that the new levies at Morris Island are not in as complete a state of organization as I desire; but I hope, in the event of an attempt to land by the enemy, that I will be able to give you a satisfactory account of them.
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]
CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
Major Anderson replies: “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say in reply thereto that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor and of my obligations to my Government prevent my compliance.” He says verbally: “I will await the first shot, and if you do not batter us to pieces we will be starved out in a few days.”
Answer.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 11, 1861.
General BEUAREGARD,
Charleston:
Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless our should be employed against Fort Sumer, you are authorized thus to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce the fort as you judgment decides to be most practicable.
L. P. WALKER.

WASHINGTON, April 11, 1861.
General G. T. BEUAREGARD:
The Tribune of to-day declares the main object of the expedition to be the relief of Sumter, and that a force will be landed which will overcome all opposition.
ROMAN.
CRAWFORD.
FORSYTH.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 11, 1861.
ROMAN, CRAWFORD, and FORSYTH,
Commissioners Confederate States, Washington, D. C.:
Evacuation of Fort Sumter will be demanded to-day. If refused, hostilities will commence to-night. Answer.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Page 302
CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Ought not demand of Sumter be made also by Commissioners at Washington for its evacuation?
G. T. BEUAREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 11, 1861.
General BEUAREGARD,
Charleston:
Numbers Yours is the only demand to be made.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
Demand sent at 2. Allowed until 6 to answer.
G. T. BEUAREGARD.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

*********************************************************

The missing communications that would be posted here detail the lack of readiness on part of the Confederate forces before firing on Fort Sumter. This never comes into a debate therefore they are not posted.

Page 304

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, April 11, 1861.
Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD:
DEAR SIR: In corroboration of the information which I am told you have already received, Captain Davenport, of the pilot-boat Palmetto, reports that he saw the Harriet Lane this afternoon, making towards this city with speed, until within about fifteen miles, of the bar, when he distinctly recognized her. He says he has no doubt about her identity, as he knows her well.
I am, dear sir, respectfully yours,
D. F. JAMISON.

Page 305

MONTGOMERY, April 12, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD,
Charleston, S. C.:
What was Major Anderson’s reply to the proposition contained in my dispatch of last night?
L. P. WLAKER.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 12, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
He would not consent. I write to-day.
G. T. BEUAREGARD.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit the inclosed copy of a correspondence with Major Anderson, in consequence of which our fire was opened upon Fort Sumter 4 at 4.30 o’clock this morning, as already communicated to you by telegraph.* The pilots reported to me last evening that a steamer, supposed to be the Harriet Lane, had appeared off the harbor. She approached slowly, and was lying off the main entrance, some ten or twelve miles, when the pilot came in.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. T. BEUAREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding
—————
*For inclosure referred to see Anderson’s report, pp. 12-16.
20 R R
****************************************************************
Page 306

CHARLESTON, April 12, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Heavy firing all day. Several guns dismounted in Sumter. Our batteries all safe. Nobody hurt. Four steamers off the bar. The sea pretty rough.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

HDQRS. FIRST REGIMENT SOUTH CAROLINA VOLS., April. 12, 1861-12 noon.
Major W. H. C. WHITTING,
Acting Adjutant and Insp. General, Morris Island, S. C.:
MAJOR: It is reported from the lookout on the light house that three steamers are in sight off the bar. One is supposed by the light-house keeper to be the Harriet Lane. The one is in sight from the ill at my camps, and appears different in its build and rig from a merchant steamer. A heavy gun was fired a short time since at sea, probably from this steamers.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
MAXCY GREGG,
Colonel First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers.

P. S.-The steamer referred to is also reported to have approached the merchant steamer which was off the bar, and has now gone south-ward.

(For more information see https://coldsouthernsteel.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/first-shot-fired-at-sumter/)

APRIL 12, 1861-afternoon.
The Pawnee, Harriet Lane (certain), and the Baltic (conjectured, from my knowledge of her build) are at anchor close at the North Channel; Illinois (conjectured) at anchor at the main bar. The wind and sea strong from the southeast; heavy surf. Troops are posted for the night. As many more as you can send will be welcome. No casualties whatever. Troops in good spirits. With your re-enforcements send, if possible, crackers and dried beef, or other provisions, in their haversacks. Shells still fire badly, owing to fuses prematurely bursting. The ships may try to send boats in. Already guns are trained and ranged for night firing on the landing. It is doubtful if the ships will try it. They may . If they run past they will have to go to the city. Men fire deliberately.
By order of General Simons:
W. H. C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Inspector General.

(For additional information see https://coldsouthernsteel.wordpress.com/2014/11/09/the-fleet-for-charleston/)

Page 308
HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Lieutenant-Colonel DE SAUSSURE,
Morris Island, S. C.:
SIR: In order to economize our mortar ammunition, I desire that at or after 12 m. this day you should double the interval between the firing of the shells; that is, four minutes instead of two during the day, and twenty minutes instead of ten during the night. The action of your mortar batteries in that respect will guide the others elsewhere. Be careful, also, not to fire too fast at your other batteries, and to call in time for additional ammunition when required.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
**************************************************
HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Major W. H. C. WHITTING,
Assistant Adjutant-General, &c., Morris Island, S. C.:
MAJOR: Your note is received. Firing, I hope, will soon be better. To save ammunition of mortars, the time between each shell thrown should be doubled by day and by night-that is, four minutes instead of two for the first, and twenty minutes instead of ten for the last. I have written to Colonel De Saussure to that effect. This change should take place after 12 m. this day. The batteries elsewhere will follow those of Cummings Point. Great care should be taken at the other batteries (gun) not to fire too fast or uselessly, and timely calls for ammunition should be made. I have requested Colonel Wigfall to lend his assistance to General Simons as a volunteer aid. Be careful to strengthen the force protecting the batteries on south end of Morris Island, for if a landing is made it will be done there, probably. How would it do to send General Bonham to command from about the light-house down to Light-house Inlet? I am trying to dispatch to that locality as many new arrivals as possible. They will do very well for those hills.
Yours, truly,
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
************************************************

CHARLESTON, April 13, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
Officers’ quarters in Sumter burning. Part of roof supposed to have fallen in. Sumter firing as long intervals. Our regular and effective. Six vessels outside in signals with Sumter.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.
********************************************
CHARLESTON, April 13, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Anderson has hauled down the United States flag on Sumter and run up white flag. Fort has been burning for several hours from effect of

*******************************************************
And so war came. I have presented communications from both sides in an un-biased factual manner. It is not my intention to cast any blame or insult anyone’s ancestors for their actions but to merely show the truth as the events happened. As we can see slavery was not the issue, that institution is not mentioned the first time. Revenue – the collection of tariffs, the occupation of Fort Sumter and dis-trust of the federal government with its lies and deceit were the causes of the war.

Arguments will persist, a play on words and facts is almost guaranteed. Blame and names will be cast, at the Confederate government and those of all races, who served the Confederacy, by wanna be “historians.”

Just a side note, it is argued by some that Negroes were never part of the Confederate Army regardless of the sources provided. Look back to the resolution giving Beauregard command of ALL forces. Notice no one is left out regardless of job or race. Just saying.

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