Thomas Nast and Santa Clause ( The Truth)

At Thanksgiving, Jimmy Dick tried to get the best of me with a Thanksgiving proclamation by Lincoln. Lincolns proclamation was proven by documents of the period to come after Jefferson Davis proclamation.

Being a bit slow getting to my email, I just found Al Mackey’s not exactly factual post on Santa Clause and Thomas Nast at  http://studycivilwar.wordpress.com/2014/12/25/thomas-nast-and-santa-claus/.

In this post Mackey makes the statement that — “The first use of the modern image of Santa Claus was by Thomas Nast in the winter of 1862-1863.  The first image of Santa Claus showed him distributing gifts to Union soldiers.  The modern Santa is a Union man, because his creator, Nast, was a diehard Union supporter.”

(See images of Harper’s Weekly articles here– http://www.sonofthesouth.net/Original_Santa_Claus.htm)

According to this website http://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/origin-of-santa/ this image appeared in 1821, forty years before Nast’s image appeared.

sante-claus-sm

This website also goes on to say this—

1821 brought some new elements with publication of the first lithographed book in America, the Children’s Friend. This “Sante Claus” arrived from the North in a sleigh with a flying reindeer. The anonymous poem and illustrations proved pivotal in shifting imagery away from a saintly bishop. Sante Claus fit a didactic mode, rewarding good behavior and punishing bad, leaving a “long, black birchen rod . . . directs a Parent’s hand to use when virtue’s path his sons refuse.” Gifts were safe toys, “pretty doll . . . peg-top, or a ball; no crackers, cannons, squibs, or rockets to blow their eyes up, or their pockets. No drums to stun their Mother’s ear, nor swords to make their sisters fear; but pretty books to store their mind with knowledge of each various kind.” The sleigh itself even sported a bookshelf for the “pretty books.” The book also notably marked S. Claus’ first appearance on Christmas Eve, rather than December 6th.

The jolly elf image received another big boost in 1823, from a poem destined to become immensely popular, “A Visit from St. Nicholas,” now better known as “The Night Before Christmas.”

Keeping in mind that Mackey bills himself as a historian and posts mainly about the War For Southern Independence, you would think Mackey would have done a bit more research that to take his posted source website as gospel.

It is really low when someone has to use Christmas or any religious holiday to spread their bigotry and hate. Maybe the search for historical fact is a bit slow these days????

Now you know the truth.

Andrew Johnson’s Proclamations

At this time, this is my last post on money as the reason Lincoln wanted to “preserve the Union.” The reason being I want to address the issue of Negro Confederates one more time. I may come back to this topic later as I find new information.

As the war progressed from the time of Fort Sumter to surrender it was a goal of the Union authorities to collect revenue from the South. That fact is evident in the ORs by simply researching and noting all the taxes and duties imposed on the people of the South by the US Army, it is also a fact that the US Congress passed taxes on the South AFTER the firing at Fort Sumter. It is also evident that many millions of dollars of goods were plundered from the people of the South. Exactly how much I can’t say, I am not investing the time and effort to try and figure out a round figure.

On a slightly different note I did find a letter stating how much the Confederate paid the United States for clothing the Confederate POWs. Something else to squeeze a penny out of the South.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 121 Page 0313 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – UNION AND CONFEDERATE.

75 MURRAY STREET, New York, February 27, 1865.

Statement of 828 bales of cotton received January 28, 1865, per steamer Atlanta. Sold, February 8, 1865, by Burdett

Page 314

The sale was made at the auction rooms corner of Wall and Front streets.

Gross amount of sales ……………………………$348,622.34

Gross amount of expenses…………………………. 16,832.68

————

Net proceeds……………………………………. 331,789.66

At the dispoal of Brigadier General W. N. R. Beall, Provisional Army, C. S., to purchase clothing to be distributed to prisoners of war held by the United States.

I would state that of the $16,832.68 are held under order of the agent of internal revenue to be paid over to the United States Government, the tax being 2 cents per pound on the cotton. As the cotton was received by the United States in a Southern port, transported by a U. S. vessel, and under charge of a U. S. officer, to me at this place in accordance with the late arrangement between General Grant and Colonel Ould, and no import duty having been charged upon supplies sent South, I respectfully ask that the said cotton be not taxed the usual internal revenue tax of 2 cents per pound, and that an order be issued to the agent of internal revenue to this effect. I would further state that the transport Atlanta, which received the 1,000 bales of cotton in Mobile Bay, proved insufficient in capacity to transport it, and the U. S. officer, Captain Frank G. Noyes, on January 16 reshipped on another vessel 170 bales of the cotton, and that nothing has been heard from this cotton to the present time.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. N. R. BEALL,

Brigadier-General, Provisional Army, C. S.,

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The South was devastated and robbed blind by the Yankee invaders, the U. S. government was still not satisfied with their finical gains. One of the first tings Johnson did was set up a system for the collection of revenue in the South. This just serves to prove that revenue before, during and after the war was one of the highest priorities of “preserving the Union!!!!!!!!!!!!!!”

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0013 UNION AUTHORITIES.

EXECUTIVE CHAMBER,

Washington City, May 9, 1865.

Ordered:

1. That all acts and proceedings of the political, military, and civil organizations which have been in a state of insurrection and rebellion

Page 14

3. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed without delay to nominate for appointment assessors of taxes and collectors of customs and internal revenue, and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are authorized by law, and shall put in execution the revenue laws of the United States within the geographical limits aforesaid.

Page 15

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set any hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L. S.] ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:

W. HUNTER,

Acting Secretary of State.

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 126 Page 0037 UNION AUTHORITIES.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, the fourth section of the fourth article of the Constitution of the United States declares that the United States shall guarantee

Page 38

And I do hereby direct–

Page 39

Third. That the Secretary of the Treasury proceed to nominate for appointment assessors of taxes, and collectors of customs and internal revenue, and such other officers of the Treasury Department as are authorized by law, and put in execution the revenue laws of the United States within the geographical limits aforesaid.

L. S.] ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD,

Secretary of State.

(Same, mutatis mutandis, issued for the State of Mississippi, June 13, 1865; for the States of Georgia and Texas (separate proclamations) June 17, 1865; for the State of Alabama, June 21, 1865; for the State of South Carolina, June 30, 1865, and for the State of Florida, July 13, 1865.

William L. Sharkey was appointed Provisional Governor of Mississippi, James Johnson for Georgia, Andrew J. Hamilton for Texas, Lewis E. Parsons for Alabama, Benjamin F. Perry for South Carolina, and William Marvin for Florida.)

Buchanan bound to collect revenue

Edited for length
War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0117 Chapter I. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – UNION.

These were the last instructions transmitted to Major Anderson before his removal to Fort Sumter, with a single exception, in regard to a particular which does not in any degree affect the present question. Under these circumstances it is clear that Major Anderson acted upon his own responsibility, and without authority, unless, indeed, he had “tangible

Page 118

evidence of a design to proceed to a hostile act” on the part of the authorities of South Carolina, which as not yet been alleged. Still, he is a brave and honorable officer, and justice requires that he should not be condemned without a fair hearing.

————–On the very day, the 27th instant, that possession of these two forts was taken the palmetto flag was raised over the Federal custom-house and post-office in Charleston; and on the same day every officer of the customs, collector, naval officer, surveyor, and appraisers, resigned their offices. And this, although it was well known from the language of my message that, as an executive officer, I felt myself bound to collect the revenue at the port of Charleston under the existing laws.

With great personal regard, I remain, yours, very respectfully,

JAMES BUCHANAN.

Another Proclamation

One of the first acts of Lincoln was to blockade the Confederate ports. Please pay special attention to the reason and date given for such action

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War of the Rebellion: Serial 122 Page 0122 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, for the reasons assigned in my proclamation if the 19th instant, a blockade of the ports of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas was ordered to be established;

And whereas since that date public property of the United States has been seized, the collection of the revenue obstructed, and duly commissioned officers of the United States while engaged in executing the orders of their superiors have been arrested and held in custody as prisoners, or have been impeded in the discharge of their official duties without due legal process by persons claiming to act under authorities of the States of Virginia and North Carolina:

An efficient blockade of the ports of those States will also be established.

It witness whereof I have hereupon set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington this twenty-seventh day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-fifth.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

A PROCLAMATION

War of the Rebellion: Serial 123 Page 0185 UNION AUTHORITIES.

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:

Whereas, in and by the second section of an act of Congress passed on the seventh day of June, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled “An act for the collection of direct taxes in insurrectionary districts within the United States, and for other purposes,” it is made the duty of the President to declare, on or before the first day of July then next following, by his proclamation in what States and parts of States insurrection exists:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, do hereby declare and proclaim that the States of South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and the State of Virginia – except the following counties: Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Marion, Monongalia, Preston, Taylor, Pleasants, Tyler, Ritchie, Doddridge, Harrison, Wood, Jackson, Wirt, Roane, Calhoun, Gilmer, Barbour, Tucker, Lewis, Braxton, Upshur, Randolph, Mason, Putnam, Kanawha, Clay, Nicholas, Cabell, Wayne, Boone, Logan, Wyoming, Webster, Fayette, and Raleigh – are now in insurrection and rebellion, and by reason thereof the civil authority of the United States is obstructed, so that the provisions of the “Act to provide increased revenue from imports to pay the interest on the public debt, and for other purposes,” approved August five, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, cannot be peaceably executed, and that the taxes legally chargeable upon real estate under the act last aforesaid lying within the States and parts of States as aforesaid, together with a penalty of fifty per centrum of said taxes, shall be a lien upon the tracts or lots of the same, severally charged, till paid.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington this first day of July, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-sixth.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

War Comes — The end of this series.

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0292 OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, S. C. Chapter I.

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
Headquarters, April 9, 1861.
To the PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES:
MY DEAR SIR: I send by the bearer important dispatches to the Secretary of War, and beg to call your immediate attention to them. The bearer is Colonel Hayne, an aide of mine, and will return immediately to me. If you have anything particular to General Beauregard or myself, you can trust it to him, and he will bring it back immediately. Since I inclosed the dispatch to the Secretary of War Major Anderson has written a polite note to General Beauregard, requesting that the letters taken from the mail might be returned, as he had been notified that his mails would be stopped entirely. The general returned for answer that the private letters had been sent to their destination, but the official letters were sent to the Confederate Government, because rumors, well established, indicated that Mr. Fox had violated his faith to me in visiting the fort, under the guarantee of Captain Hartstene, who went with him. The pledge was that he visited Major Anderson by authority, for pacific purposes entirely. You see that the present scheme for supplying the fort is Mr. Fox’s. It is thought that the attempt will be made to-night, and we have doubled our steamboats on the harbor and bar.

Since I wrote to the War Department we have increased the forces on Morris Island to two thousand one hundred men, and ten companies of fine men arrive to-night, in the next train, of eight hundred men, and two more regiments arrive to-morrow. We hope to have about six thousand men there on the harbor batteries and posts. I trust we are ready, and if they come we will give them a cordial reception, such as will ring through this country, I think. I hope we are not mistaken; but, at any rate, we will try and do our duty.
With great esteem, yours, very truly,

F. W. PICKENS.
************************************************

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
Headquarters, April 9, 1861.
Honorable Mr. WALKER, Secretary of War:
SIR: At the request of General Beauregard I inclose the within. I took possession of the mails this morning from Sumter, and retained the packages marked “official.” These are all sent you. The private letters are all sent, as directed, to their owners. I did this because I consider a state of war is now inaugurated by the authorities at Washington, and all information of a public nature was necessary to us. The mails and all intercourse of any kind with Sumter are now forbidden, and I immediately refused Captain Talbot any interview with Major Anderson, and also his request to be restored to his command in the fort.

I called in General Beauregard, and made Captain Talbot and Mr. Chew repeat in his presence what they had said and what the former desired as to Sumter, and General Beauregard entirely and immediately concurred.
You will see by these letters of Major Anderson how it is intended to supply the fort; but by God’s providence we will, I trust, be prepared for them; and if they approach with war vessels also, I think you will hear of as bloody a fight as ever occurred. We now have three thousand seven hundred men at the different posts and batteries, and will have by to-morrow three thousand more, which I have called down. From my calculation, I think they will have about two thousand six

Page 294

hundred, and will attempt to land in launch-boats with 24 and 12 pounders, and it will probably be on the lower end of Morris Island, next the light-house. If so, we will have a fine rifle regiment to give them a cordial welcome from behind sand hills (that are natural fortifications), and two Dahlgren guns will be right on them, besides four 24-pounders in battery. I have four hundred fine Enfield rifles that have been practiced at nine hundred yards, and on that island, altogether, we have now one thousand nine hundred and fifty men, and are increasing it to-day.

There has just arrived on the bar a fine rifled cannon from Liverpool, of the latest maker (Blakely gun), an improvement upon Armstrong, of steel rolls or coils, with an elevation of seven and one-half degrees to a mile. It throws a shell or twelve-pound shot with the accuracy of a dueling-pistol, and only one and one-half pounds of powder. Such, they write me, is this gun, and I hope to have it in position to-night. We expect the attack about 6 o’clock in the morning, on account of the tide.
Very respectfully,

F. W. PICKENS.

[Inclosure Numbers 1.]
FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
General JOSEPH G. TOTTEN,
Chief Engineer U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:
GENERAL: The increased activity and vigilance of the investing force, as reported yesterday, still continues. Three large traverses are nearly completed on the front, from battery Numbers 3 to 5, on Morris Island, and traverses are also being erected in the interior of battery Numbers 5. Additions of sand bags are being made to the covering of the magazine, between Nos. 2 and 3, and to the left flank of Numbers 1, where I think they are constructing a service magazine.
I am busily at work constructing splinter-proof shelters on the terreplein. I obtain timber by taking the gun carriages to pieces, and form the covering of the 2-inch iron pieces for embrasures, as seen below. The plates are spiked on, so as to be securely retained in their places, even if struck by a shell, which I am confident it will turn.
Our supplies are entirely cut off from the city, and those on hand are very limited.
The besieging forces worked all day yesterday, whenever the intervals between the showers of rain would allow.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

P. S. – I received yesterday a letter from the Secretary of War to Major Anderson, which, by mistake, had been enveloped to me. I handed it to Major Anderson without reading.
Respectfully, & c.,

J. G. FOSTER,
Captain, Engineers.

[Inclosure Numbers 2.]
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General:
DEAR COLONEL: In another envelope I shall send a Numbers 96, which you will be pleased to destroy.
That God will preserve our beloved country, is the heart-felt prayer of your friend,
R. A.

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Numbers 96.] FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C.:
COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the South Carolinians have since about noon yesterday been very actively engaged in strengthening their works on Morris Island. I pray that God will avert the storm which seems impending over us, and restore amicable and permanently pacific relations between the States who still stick to the old Union and those who have formed another Government in the South.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

P. S. – I omitted acknowledging the receipt of the letter from the honorable Secretary of the 4th instant.

[Inclosure Numbers 3.]
Numbers 96.] FORT SUMTER, S. C., April 8, 1861.
Colonel L. THOMAS, Adjutant-General U. S. Army:
COLONEL: I have the honor to report that the resumption of work yesterday (Sunday) at various points on Morris Island, and the vigorous prosecution of it this morning, apparently strengthening nearly all the batteries which are under the fire of our guns, shows that they either have received some news from Washington which has put them on the qui vive or that they have received orders from Montgomery to commence operations here. I am preparing by the side of my barbette guns protection for our men from the shells, which will be almost continuously bursting over or in our work.
I had the honor to receive by yesterday’s mail the letter of the honorable Secretary of War, dated April 4, and confess that what he there states surprises me very greatly, following as it does and contradicting so positively the assurance Mr. Crawford telegraphed he was authorized to make. I trust that this matter w ill be at once put in a correct light, as a movement made now, when the South has been erroneously informed that none such will be attempted, would produce most disastrous results throughout our country.

It is, of course, now too late for me to give any advice in reference to the proposed scheme of Captain Fox. I fear that its result cannot fail to be disastrous to all concerned. Even with his boat at our walls the loss of life (as I think I mentioned to Mr. Fox) in unloading her will more than pay for the good to be accomplished by the expedition, which keeps us, if I can maintain possession of this work, out of position, surrounded by strong works, which must be carried to make this fort of the least value to the United States Government.

We have not oil enough to keep a light in the lantern for one night. The boats will have, therefore, to rely at night entirely upon other marks. I ought to have been informed that this expedition was to come. Colonel Lamon’s remark convinced me that the idea, merely hinted at to me by Captain Fox, would not be carried out. We shall strive to do our duty, though I frankly say that my heart is not in the was which I see is to be thus commenced. That God will still avert it, and cause us to resort to pacific measures to maintain our rights, is my ardent prayer.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT ANDERSON,
Major, First Artillery, Commanding.

Page 297

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 9, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
The messenger speaks doubtless my authority. He gives the promised notice to Governor Pickens. Diplomacy has failed. The sword must now preserve our independence. Our gallant countrymen will do their duty.

MARTIN J. CRAWFORD.

MONTGOMERY, April 10, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
If you have no doubt of the authorized character of the agent who communicated to you the intention of the Washington Government to supply Fort Sumter by force you will at once demand its evacuation, and if this is refused proceed, in such manner as you may determine, to reduce it. Answer.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 10, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
The demand will be made to-morrow at 12 o’clock.
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General.

MONTGOMERY, April 10, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:
Unless there are special reasons connected with your own condition, it is considered proper that you should make the demand at an earlier hour.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
The reasons are special for 12 o’clock.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Page 298

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES,
Charleston, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit copies of a set of complimentary resolutions, and of a resolution placing all the forces that may be called into service in this State under my orders, passed by the Convention of the State of South Carolina.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

P. S. – I am doing all in my power to prevent re-enforcements by barges to Sumter to-night or to-morrow night.
G. T. B.

[Inclosures.]
Resolved, That this Convention approves of the action of the governor, in placing the forces for the military defense of Charleston under the command of General Beauregard, and that he be authorized to call into the field immediately such number of the volunteer regiments, raised under the act of assembly, as General Beauregard may require for the operations under his control; the whole force to be placed under the command of General Beauregard, or such other general officer as may be ordered to the same command by the authorities of the Confederate States of America.
[Adopted Monday, April 8, 1861.]

Resolved, That this Convention, on behalf of the people of this State, repose entire confidence in the eminent professional skill, courage, and sound judgment of Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, and in the intelligent and efficient co-operation of the various members of his staff, and other assistants, military and naval, and respectfully tender to them, and to the various forces in the service, and individuals designated, the thanks of the State for their successful efforts thus far, to protect the honor and interests of the State.

Resolved, That it Fort Sumter shall fall into the hands of our present Government, and the harbor of Charleston should be relieved from all hostile occupation or obstruction, although without any actual conflict of arms, such result will be not the less achieved by our forces aforesaid, and their wise and effective operations.

Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be communicated to General Beauregard, with a request that he extend them to the various regiments, battalions, and separate companies, and to his staff and assistants, in such form and manner as he shall judge expedient.
[Adopted Monday, April 8, 1861.]
MORRIS ISLAND, S. C., April 10, 1861.
Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD,

Page 301
HDQRS. PROV. ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA,
Charleston, S. C., April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:
SIR: I transmit herewith, for the information of the Department, a copy of my note of this morning to Major Anderson, commanding at Fort Sumter, demanding the surrender of that fort to the Confederate Government, together with a copy of his reply thereto.* As soon as
—————
* See inclosures to Anderson’s report, p. 13.

Page 302

his answer was received a telegraphic dispatch (a copy of which is inclosed) was sent to you, communicating its purport, and asking for your instructions. I regret to add here that the new levies at Morris Island are not in as complete a state of organization as I desire; but I hope, in the event of an attempt to land by the enemy, that I will be able to give you a satisfactory account of them.
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

[Inclosure.]
CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
Major Anderson replies: “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort, and to say in reply thereto that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor and of my obligations to my Government prevent my compliance.” He says verbally: “I will await the first shot, and if you do not batter us to pieces we will be starved out in a few days.”
Answer.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 11, 1861.
General BEUAREGARD,
Charleston:
Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless our should be employed against Fort Sumer, you are authorized thus to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce the fort as you judgment decides to be most practicable.
L. P. WALKER.

WASHINGTON, April 11, 1861.
General G. T. BEUAREGARD:
The Tribune of to-day declares the main object of the expedition to be the relief of Sumter, and that a force will be landed which will overcome all opposition.
ROMAN.
CRAWFORD.
FORSYTH.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 11, 1861.
ROMAN, CRAWFORD, and FORSYTH,
Commissioners Confederate States, Washington, D. C.:
Evacuation of Fort Sumter will be demanded to-day. If refused, hostilities will commence to-night. Answer.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Page 302
CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Ought not demand of Sumter be made also by Commissioners at Washington for its evacuation?
G. T. BEUAREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 11, 1861.
General BEUAREGARD,
Charleston:
Numbers Yours is the only demand to be made.
L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 11, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
Demand sent at 2. Allowed until 6 to answer.
G. T. BEUAREGARD.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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The missing communications that would be posted here detail the lack of readiness on part of the Confederate forces before firing on Fort Sumter. This never comes into a debate therefore they are not posted.

Page 304

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, April 11, 1861.
Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD:
DEAR SIR: In corroboration of the information which I am told you have already received, Captain Davenport, of the pilot-boat Palmetto, reports that he saw the Harriet Lane this afternoon, making towards this city with speed, until within about fifteen miles, of the bar, when he distinctly recognized her. He says he has no doubt about her identity, as he knows her well.
I am, dear sir, respectfully yours,
D. F. JAMISON.

Page 305

MONTGOMERY, April 12, 1861.
General BEAUREGARD,
Charleston, S. C.:
What was Major Anderson’s reply to the proposition contained in my dispatch of last night?
L. P. WLAKER.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 12, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
He would not consent. I write to-day.
G. T. BEUAREGARD.

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit the inclosed copy of a correspondence with Major Anderson, in consequence of which our fire was opened upon Fort Sumter 4 at 4.30 o’clock this morning, as already communicated to you by telegraph.* The pilots reported to me last evening that a steamer, supposed to be the Harriet Lane, had appeared off the harbor. She approached slowly, and was lying off the main entrance, some ten or twelve miles, when the pilot came in.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. T. BEUAREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding
—————
*For inclosure referred to see Anderson’s report, pp. 12-16.
20 R R
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CHARLESTON, April 12, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Heavy firing all day. Several guns dismounted in Sumter. Our batteries all safe. Nobody hurt. Four steamers off the bar. The sea pretty rough.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.

HDQRS. FIRST REGIMENT SOUTH CAROLINA VOLS., April. 12, 1861-12 noon.
Major W. H. C. WHITTING,
Acting Adjutant and Insp. General, Morris Island, S. C.:
MAJOR: It is reported from the lookout on the light house that three steamers are in sight off the bar. One is supposed by the light-house keeper to be the Harriet Lane. The one is in sight from the ill at my camps, and appears different in its build and rig from a merchant steamer. A heavy gun was fired a short time since at sea, probably from this steamers.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
MAXCY GREGG,
Colonel First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers.

P. S.-The steamer referred to is also reported to have approached the merchant steamer which was off the bar, and has now gone south-ward.

(For more information see https://coldsouthernsteel.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/first-shot-fired-at-sumter/)

APRIL 12, 1861-afternoon.
The Pawnee, Harriet Lane (certain), and the Baltic (conjectured, from my knowledge of her build) are at anchor close at the North Channel; Illinois (conjectured) at anchor at the main bar. The wind and sea strong from the southeast; heavy surf. Troops are posted for the night. As many more as you can send will be welcome. No casualties whatever. Troops in good spirits. With your re-enforcements send, if possible, crackers and dried beef, or other provisions, in their haversacks. Shells still fire badly, owing to fuses prematurely bursting. The ships may try to send boats in. Already guns are trained and ranged for night firing on the landing. It is doubtful if the ships will try it. They may . If they run past they will have to go to the city. Men fire deliberately.
By order of General Simons:
W. H. C. WHITING,
Adjutant and Inspector General.

(For additional information see https://coldsouthernsteel.wordpress.com/2014/11/09/the-fleet-for-charleston/)

Page 308
HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Lieutenant-Colonel DE SAUSSURE,
Morris Island, S. C.:
SIR: In order to economize our mortar ammunition, I desire that at or after 12 m. this day you should double the interval between the firing of the shells; that is, four minutes instead of two during the day, and twenty minutes instead of ten during the night. The action of your mortar batteries in that respect will guide the others elsewhere. Be careful, also, not to fire too fast at your other batteries, and to call in time for additional ammunition when required.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
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HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES, Charleston, S. C., April 12, 1861.
Major W. H. C. WHITTING,
Assistant Adjutant-General, &c., Morris Island, S. C.:
MAJOR: Your note is received. Firing, I hope, will soon be better. To save ammunition of mortars, the time between each shell thrown should be doubled by day and by night-that is, four minutes instead of two for the first, and twenty minutes instead of ten for the last. I have written to Colonel De Saussure to that effect. This change should take place after 12 m. this day. The batteries elsewhere will follow those of Cummings Point. Great care should be taken at the other batteries (gun) not to fire too fast or uselessly, and timely calls for ammunition should be made. I have requested Colonel Wigfall to lend his assistance to General Simons as a volunteer aid. Be careful to strengthen the force protecting the batteries on south end of Morris Island, for if a landing is made it will be done there, probably. How would it do to send General Bonham to command from about the light-house down to Light-house Inlet? I am trying to dispatch to that locality as many new arrivals as possible. They will do very well for those hills.
Yours, truly,
G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
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CHARLESTON, April 13, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER,
Secretary of War:
Officers’ quarters in Sumter burning. Part of roof supposed to have fallen in. Sumter firing as long intervals. Our regular and effective. Six vessels outside in signals with Sumter.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.
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CHARLESTON, April 13, 1861.
Honorable L. P. WALKER:
Anderson has hauled down the United States flag on Sumter and run up white flag. Fort has been burning for several hours from effect of

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And so war came. I have presented communications from both sides in an un-biased factual manner. It is not my intention to cast any blame or insult anyone’s ancestors for their actions but to merely show the truth as the events happened. As we can see slavery was not the issue, that institution is not mentioned the first time. Revenue – the collection of tariffs, the occupation of Fort Sumter and dis-trust of the federal government with its lies and deceit were the causes of the war.

Arguments will persist, a play on words and facts is almost guaranteed. Blame and names will be cast, at the Confederate government and those of all races, who served the Confederacy, by wanna be “historians.”

Just a side note, it is argued by some that Negroes were never part of the Confederate Army regardless of the sources provided. Look back to the resolution giving Beauregard command of ALL forces. Notice no one is left out regardless of job or race. Just saying.

Last Minute Decisions

War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0283 Chapter I. CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE.

CHARLESTON, S. C., April 1, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER, Montgomery, Ala.:

The following telegram just received from Commissioner Crawford:

I am authorized to say that this Government will not undertake to supply Sumter without notice to you. My opinion is that the President has not the courage to exe-

Page 284

cute the order agreed upon in Cabinet for the evacuation of the fort, but that he intends to shift the responsibility upon Major Anderson, by suffering him to be starved out. Would it not be well to aid in this by cutting off all supplies?

CRAWFORD.

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Page 284

WASHINGTON, April 2, 1861.

Honorable ROBERT TOOMBS, Montgomery, Ala.:

The war wing presses on the President; he vibrates to that side. He has conferred with several officers, and naval engineer, supposed to be in regard to Sumter; perhaps to collecting revenue at New Orleans.

Commodore Pendergrast is not at Key West but at Norfolk; could not therefore land troops. Senator Dixon conversed fully with Chase on Saturday; found him much moderated and strongly inclined to peace policy.

Their form of notice to us may be that of the coward, who gives it when he strikes. Watch at all points. It is said the Pawnee sailed from this place this evening with three companies of artillery.

MARTIN J. CRAWFORD.

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Page 285

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,

Montgomery, April 2, 1861.

Brigadier General G. T. BEAUREGARD,

Commanding Charleston Harbor, Charleston, S. C.:

SIR: The Government has at no time placed any reliance on assurances by the Government at Washington in respect to the evacuation of Fort Sumter, or entertained any confidence in the disposition of the latter to make any concession or yield any point to which it is not driven by absolute necessity, and I desire that you will govern yourself generally with strict reference to this as the key to the policy of the Government of the Confederate States.

You are specially instructed to remit in no degree your efforts to prevent the re-enforcement of Fort Sumter, and to keep yourself in a state of the amplest preparation and most perfect readiness to repel invasion, acting in all respects – save only in commencing an assault or attack, except to repel an invading or re-enforcing force – precisely as if you were in the presence of an enemy contemplating to surprise you.

The delays and apparent vacillations of the Washington Government make it imperative that the further concession of courtesies such as have been accorded to Major Anderson and his command, in supplies from the city, must cease; and, in general terms, the status which you must at once re-establish and rigidly enforce is that of hostile forces in the presence of each other, and who may at any moment be in actual conflict; but as past conditions have allowed this Government to continue thus far courtesies of personal convenience to Major Anderson and his officers, it is proper now, as these courtesies are required to be determined by the necessities of your position, that you signify in respectful terms to Major Anderson that all communication with the city from the fort and with the fort from the city, for any purpose of supply is absolutely inhibited; and after having so notified that gentleman at the very earliest moment practicable you will make your surveillance of the harbor and the enforcement of the rule of instruction indicated in the notice to the commander of Fort Sumter as rigid as all the means at your command and the most watchful vigilance can secure.

Until the withdrawal of the Commissioner of this Government from Washington – an event which may occur at any moment – no operations beyond what is indicated in the foregoing would be admissible. Promptly, however, on the receipt by this Government of the intelligence of such withdrawal the Department will transmit to you specific instructions for your guidance.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER,

Secretary of War.

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Page 286

WASHINGTON, April 3, 1861.

Honorable ROBERT TOOMBS, & C., Montgomery, Ala.:

Much activity to-day in the War and Navy Departments. It is said the Minnesota, at Boston, has been ordered to the mouth of the Mississippi. Powhatan suddenly put in commission to sail next week. Four companies now here – three artillery, one sappers and miners -ordered to New York. Report says these movements have reference to the San Domingo question. Pawnee will not be ready for sea until Saturday.

Our intermediary says they dare not deceive him, as they know we do not rely upon them but upon HIM.

CRAWFORD.

ROMAN.

FORSYTH.

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Page 286

HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL FORCES,

Charleston, S. C., April 4, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of instructions of the 2nd instant, in reference to Fort Sumter, and respectfully ask to be further instructed in regard to the mails of Major Anderson, which have been allowed daily up to this time, whether they shall be continued or limited to once or twice a week.

The batteries are now all complete, but I regret to have to state that there are but few, if any, well-instructed artillerists on Morris Island; also, that the shells and fuses of the sea-coast guns and columbiads cannot be entirely relied upon.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WASHINGTON, April 5, 1861.

Honorable ROBERT TOOMBS, & C., Montgomery, Ala.:

The movement of troops and preparation on board of vessels of war, of which you have already been apprised, are continued with the greatest activity. An important move requiring a formidable military and naval force is certainly on foot. The statement that this armament is intended for St. Domingo may be a mere ruse.

We are, however, most creditably informed that Commodore Stringham, who takes charge of the squadron, sails for St. Domingo.

Having no confidence in the administration, we say, be ever on your guard. Glad to hear that you are ready. The notice promised us will come at the last moment if the fleet be intended for our waters.

CRAWFORD.

ROMAN.

FORSYTH.

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Page 287

[APRIL 6, 1861.]

Honorable ROBERT TOOMBS, Secretary, & c., Montgomery, Ala.:

No change in the activity of the warlike armaments mentioned yesterday. The rumor that they are destined against Pickens and perhaps Sumter is getting every day stronger. We know nothing positive on the subject, but advise equal activity on your part to receive them if they come. We have not yet been notified of the movement, but the notification may come when they are ready to start.

CRAWFORD.

FORSYTH.

ROMAN.

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Page 287

WASHINGTON, April 6, 1861.

Honorable A. G. MAGRATH, Charleston, S. C.:

Positively determined not to withdraw Anderson. Supplies go immediately, supported by naval force under Stringham if their landing be resisted.

A FRIEND.

[Indorsements.]

To CHARLESTON OFFICE:

The above is by a reliable man.

CALDWELL.

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MONDAY, April 8. – Sent by James E. Harvey by telegraph last Saturday morning.

CHARLESTON, April 6, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

The following telegraph I have just received from Washington:

Positively determined not to withdraw Anderson. Supplies go immediately, supported by a naval force under Stringham if their landing is resisted.

A FRIEND.

Governor and General Beauregard visiting the posts in the harbor, and will not be here for a few hours. In their absence I telegraphed to Washington to know who was the person signing himself “A Friend.” The reply satisfies me that the person is high in the confidence of the Government at Washington. Mr. Wigfall, who is with me, concurs in the propriety of giving you notice of it without delay.

A. G. MAGRATH.

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WASHINGTON, April 6, 1861.

To Honorable A. G. MAGRATH, JAMES L. PETIGRU,

B. F. DUNKIN, and Miss S. C. HARVEY, Charleston, S. C.:

Order issued for withdrawal of Anderson’s command. Scott declares it military necessity. This is private.

JAMES E. HARVEY.

Honorable A. G. MAGRATH, Charleston, S. C.:

Great efforts making to reconsider withdrawal, but will fail. Final consultation to-morrow.

JAMES E. HARVEY.

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Page 288

Honorable A. G. MAGRATH, Charleston, S. C.:

Final order still reserved. No decision reached in council yesterday, though six for withdrawal and one against.

Is it true your people will oppose voluntary withdrawal and demand capitulation? If so, friends of peace here are powerless.

JAMES E. HARVEY.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,

Montgomery, April 6, 1861.

Brigadier General G. T. BEAUREGARD,

Commanding Charleston Harbor, Charleston, S. C.:

SIR: Your letter of the 4th instant has been received. In reply to your inquiry as to Major Anderson’s mails, I have to say that the policy of the Government is most decided that there shall be such a surveillance of Charleston Harbor and of Fort Sumter as shall assure this Government that the latter is, for all military purposes, entirely isolated. The courtesies which have been accorded to the commander of that fortress have been, in the opinion of this Department, taken advantage of in some cases by persons whose object in visiting Fort Sumter was chiefly to obtain information of the state of our defenses, to be communicated to the Government at Washington. Acting, then, on the leading ideas that the military isolation of Fort Sumter and the prevention of all possible espionage by the Washington Government are absolutely required, you are directed, while allowing Major Anderson to receive his mails, to exercise such instructive discretion as will secure the ends in view.

Minute instructions, covering every possible case, cannot, of course, be given you, but you are directed to exclude possibility of the admission of any one who may be sent by or be favorable to the Government at Washington, always excepting such messenger or bearer of dispatches from that Government as you may be fully

assured shall be conveying orders for the surrender or evacuation of the fortress.

You are specifically instructed to permit no one of the persons now in Fort Sumter to depart therefrom; and to secure absolute compliance with this requirement you will use the utmost vigilance and apply all the means at your command. And in this connection the Department would ask your attention to a telegraphic statement generally published under date of “April 4th,” to the effect that Lieutenant Talbot, an officer of the garrison of Fort Sumter, had been allowed to depart therefrom. As this is in apparent conflict with thee instructions communicated to you by telegraph, the Department presumes that there were special reasons, affecting the public interest, which, in your judgment, made the case properly exceptional, and I shall therefore be pleased to be made acquainted with the circumstances.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER.

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[APRIL 8, 1861.]

AN ORDNANCE to transfer to the Government of the Confederate States of America the use and occupancy of the forts, arsenals, navy-yards, custom-houses, and other public sites within the limits of this State.

We, the people of South Carolina, in convention assembled, do ordain and declare, and it is hereby ordained and declared by the authority of the same, that the Government of the Confederate States of America is

Page 289

hereby authorized to occupy, use, and hold possession of all forts, navy-yards, arsenals, custom-houses, and other public sites within the limits of this State, and their appurtenances, lately in the possession of the United States of America, together with Fort Sumter, and to repair, rebuild, and control the same at its discretion, until this ordinance be repealed by a convention of the people of this State.

Done at Charleston, the 8th day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one.

D. F. JAMISON,

President.

Attest:

B. F. ARTHUR, Clerk.

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WASHINGTON, April 8, 1861.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD:

Accounts are uncertain, because of the constant vacillation of this Government. We were reassured yesterday that the status of Sumter would not be changed without previous notice to Governor Pickens, but we have no faith in them. The war policy prevails in the Cabinet at this hour.

M. J. CRAWFORD.

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CHARLESTON, April 8, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

Authorized messenger from Lincoln just informed Governor, Pickens and myself that provisions would be sent to Sumter peaceably, otherwise by force.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 8, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:

Under no circumstances are you to allow provisions to be sent to Fort Sumter.

L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 8, 1861.

Honorable L. P. WALKER:

Anderson’s provisions stopped yesterday. No answer from him. I am calling out balance of contingent troops.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,

April 8, 1861.

[General BEAUREGARD:]

DEAR GENERAL: I inclose the within copy of Major Anderson’s note.* Please say to the Secretary of War that we thought detaching an officer from the garrison was weakening its efficiency and not taking much from the consumption of food. Tell him that you as well as myself saw the

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* See Anderson to Pickens, April 4, p. 238.

Page 290

foolish firing, and both regretted it, and that you immediately issued orders as to the future firing, & c., and that the captain in charge of the watch-vessel, the Petrel, was discharged for his neglect of duty, & c.

In great haste, but most sincerely,

F. W. PICKENS.

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Page 290

HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY CONFEDERATE STATES,

Charleston, S. C., April 8, 1861.

General L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery, Ala.:

SIR: The War Department letter of the 6th instant has been received. I send herewith a copy of the letter addressed yesterday to Major Robert Anderson, stopping his provisions from this city, in obedience to the instructions of the Department.* He has not yet answered it, probably on account of the prevailing bad weather, or perhaps he wishes to await the orders of the United States Government.

Lieutenant Talbot was allowed to go to Washington in order to diminish as much as practicable the number of Major Anderson’s officers, and in the hope that he would communicate to the Government at Washington their true condition in Fort Sumter, which Governor Pickens and myself have reasons to believe is not satisfactory to them.

On account of the unfortunate publication this morning of the proceedings of the State Convention of South Carolina, containing a detailed report of the State secretary of war, giving the exact condition, strength, and number of batteries and troops collected for the defense of this harbor, I have called out the balance of the five thousand men to which I have been limited by my instructions of the 1st ultimo – a measure rendered still more necessary on account of the warlike preparations at present being made by the United States Government with so much mystery.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,

Brigadier-General, Commanding.

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WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,

Montgomery, April 8, 1861.

His Excellency F. W. PICKENS, Charleston S. C.:

SIR: The discontinuance by the United States of negotiations with the Commissioners representing this Government, of which doubtless you have before this been made aware, leaves no doubt as to the policy wee should pursue.

A large force will probably, and if at all, almost immediately, be needed to resist the coercive measures of the Washington administration. To meet this condition of affairs, this Department, acting with reference to the power vested in the Executive by the act of the Congress entitled “An act to provide for the public defense,” suggests to your excellency the necessity of calling at once for three thousand volunteers, to be drilled, equipped, and held in instant readiness to meet any requisition from this Department. These troops will, of course, not be receiving pay until they shall be mustered into service, but the emergency is so pressing that your excellency will fully appreciate the great importance of thorough preparation, especially in regard to instant capacity to move. A simi

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* See inclosure to Anderson to Thomas, April 7, “Union Correspondence,” & c., p. 248.

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lar request has been addressed to the Executive of the Confederate States. Asking an early reply to the suggestions above made,

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER.

(Similar letter to the governor of Florida, Tallahassee; the governor of Georgia; governor of Louisiana, Baton Rouge; governor of Texas, Austin; governor of Alabama, Montgomery; governor of Mississippi.)

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APRIL 8, 1861.

“I am directed by the President of the United States to notify you to expect an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with provisions only, and that if such attempt be not resisted no effort to throw in men, arms, or ammunition will be made without further notice, or in case of an attack upon the fort.”

The above was communicated to us on the evening of April 8 by Robert S. Chew, esq., of the State Department in Washington, and Captain Talbot stated that it was from the President of the United States, as did Mr. Chew, and was delivered to him on the 6th instant at Washington, and this was read in their presence and admitted.

F. W. PICKENS.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

MONTGOMERY, April 9, 1861.

General BEAUREGARD, Charleston:

Major Anderson’s mails must be stopped. The fort must be completely isolated.

L. P. WALKER.

CHARLESTON, April 9, 1861.

L. P. WALKER:

The mails have already been stopped.

G. T. BEAUREGARD.

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We see very little trust in the Federal government by the Confederate authorities. Supplies were still sent from Charleston to Sumter. Also please note that contrary to what most people from the other side says, there was a peace delegation in Washington and the Federal government broke off these negotiations.

Did anyone notice the reference of a ship being sent to New Orleans to collect revenue?